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Irregular Menstrual Period

A woman's body usually prepares for pregnancy about every 28 days. Her cycle begins on the first day of bleeding and continues to the first day of the next menstrual period. Every woman's body is unique. For some, a cycle is as short as 21 days or as long as 35 days, and for some women, each cycle is different from the previous. What is irregular for one woman may be normal for another.

Irregular menstrual period is a physical or emotional problem that interferes with the normal menstrual cycle, causing pain, unusually heavy or light bleeding, delayed menarche, or missed periods. A woman of childbearing age should menstruate every 28 days or so unless she is pregnant or moving into menopause.

What causes abnormal / irregular menstruation?

There are many causes of abnormal periods, ranging from stress to more serious underlying medical conditions:

  • Stress. Gaining or losing a significant amount of weight, dieting, changes in exercise routines, travel, illness, or other disruptions in a woman’s daily routine can have an impact on her menstrual cycle.
  • Birth control pills. Most birth control pills contain a combination of the hormones estrogen and progestin (some contain progestin alone). The pills prevent pregnancy by keeping the ovaries from releasing eggs. Going on or off birth control pills can affect menstruation. Some women have irregular or missed periods for up to six months after discontinuing birth control pills. This is an important consideration when you are planning on conception and becoming pregnant. Women who take birth control pills that contain progestin only may have bleeding between periods.
  • Uterine polyps or fibroids. Uterine polyps are small benign (noncancerous) growths in the lining of the uterus. Uterine fibroids are tumors that attach to the wall of the uterus. There may be one or several fibroids that range from as small as an apple seed to the size of a grapefruit. These tumors are usually benign, but they may cause heavy bleeding and pain during periods. If the fibroids are large, they might put pressure on the bladder or rectum, causing discomfort.
  • Endometriosis. The endometrial tissue that lines the uterus breaks down every month and is discharged with the menstrual flow. Endometriosis occurs when the endometrial tissue starts to grow outside the uterus. Often, the endometrial tissue attaches itself to the ovaries or Fallopian tubes; it sometimes grows on the intestines or other organs in the lower digestive tract and in the area between your rectum and uterus. Endometriosis may cause abnormal bleeding, cramps or pain before and during periods, and painful intercourse.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a bacterial infection that affects the female reproductive system. Bacteria may enter the vagina via sexual contact and then spread to the uterus and upper genital tract. Bacteria might also enter the reproductive tract through insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) or through childbirth, miscarriage, or abortion. Symptoms of PID include a heavy vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor, irregular periods, pain in the pelvic and lower abdominal areas, fever, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome. In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the ovaries make large amounts of the male hormone androgen. Small fluid-filled sacs (cysts) may form in the ovaries. These can often been seen on ultrasound. The high levels of androgens prevent eggs from maturing, and so ovulation does not take place. Sometimes a woman with polycystic ovary syndrome will have irregular periods or stop menstruating completely. In addition, the condition is associated with obesity, infertility, and hirsutism (excessive hair growth). This condition may be caused by a hormonal imbalance, although the exact cause is unknown. Treatment of PCOS depends on whether a woman desires pregnancy. If pregnancy is not a goal, then weight loss, oral contraceptive pills, and the medication Metformin (an insulin sensitizer) can regulate a woman’s cycles. If pregnancy is desired, ovulation-stimulating medications can be tried.
  • Premature ovary failure. This condition occurs in women under age 40 whose ovaries do not function normally. The menstrual cycle may be irregular or absent. This can occur in patients who are being treated for cancer with chemotherapy and radiation, or if you have a family history of premature ovary failure or certain chromosomal abnormalities. If this condition occurs, see your physician.

Other causes of abnormal menstruation include:

  • Uterine cancer or cervical cancer
  • Medications, such as steroids or anticoagulant drugs (blood thinners)
  • Medical conditions, such as anemia, other bleeding disorders, an under- or overactive thyroid gland, or pituitary disorders that affect hormonal balance
  • Complications associated with pregnancy, including miscarriage or an ectopic pregnancy (the fertilized egg is implanted outside the uterus; for example, within the Fallopian tube)

Other types of conditions that can be referred to by "irregular menstruation" include premenstrual syndrome, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, menstrual cramps, Menorrhagia.


There are two types of amenorrhea: primary and secondary.

Primary amenorrhea occurs when a girl at least 16 years old is not menstruating. Girls may not have regular periods for their first year or two, or their periods may be very light, a condition known as oligomenorrhea. A light flow is nothing to worry about. But if the period has not begun at all by age 16, there may be something wrong.

Secondary amenorrhea occurs in women of childbearing age after a period of normal menstruation and is diagnosed when menstruation has stopped for three months. It can occur in women of any age.


Dysmenorrhea is a very common complaint and may be primary or secondary, although primary dysmenorrhea is more prevalent.

  • Primary dysmenorrhea

  • Secondary dysmenorrhea

Primary dysmenorrhea usually start within three years of a girl's first period. it can last one or two days a month, and can continue through menopause. Primary dysmenorrhea is believed to be caused by the normal production of chemical substances called prostaglandins. These prostaglandins make the uterus contract, sometimes so much that the blood supply is cut off for a short time, depriving the uterine muscle of oxygen. That process can cause painful cramping.

Secondary dysmenorrhea, caused by disease like uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease and endometriosis all fall into this category.

Menorrhagia : 

Menorrhagia, or heavy bleeding, most commonly occurs in the years just before menopause or just after women start menstruating. Menstrual bleeding that lasts more than 8-10 days with blood loss of over 80 mL is considered excessive.

Premenstrual Syndrome:

Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, is a group of physical and emotional symptoms that occur in the latter half of the menstrual cycle following ovulation. Symptoms, which can include backache, bloating, irritability and headache, are typically most intense during the seven days prior to the start of menses. For more details click here................

Premenstrual dysphonic disorder, or PMDD, is a more severe form of PMS that also includes a psychological component. For a PMDD diagnosis certain symptomatic criteria must be met and the symptoms must interfere with daily living.

Menstrual cramps :

Menstrual cramps are pains in the abdominal (belly) and pelvic areas that are experienced by a woman as a result of her menstrual period. Menstrual cramps are not the same as the discomfort felt during premenstrual syndrome (PMS), although the symptoms of both disorders can sometimes be experienced as a continual process. Many women suffer from both PMS and menstrual cramps.

When you have your menstrual period, you may get mild to bad menstrual cramps or pain in your abdomen or back. You may also have nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, a headache, or lightheadedness.

Heavy menstrual bleeding :

One in five women bleed so heavily during their periods that they have to put their normal lives on hold just to deal with the heavy blood flow. Bleeding is considered heavy if it interferes with normal activities. Blood loss during a normal menstrual period is about 5 tablespoons, but if you have heavy menstrual bleeding, you may bleed as much as 10 to 25 times that amount each month. You may have to change a tampon or pad every hour, for example, instead of three or four times a day. Heavy menstrual bleeding can be common at various stages of your life—during your teen years when you first begin to menstruate and in your late 40s or early 50s, as you get closer to menopause. If you are past menopause and experience any vaginal bleeding, discuss your symptoms with your health care professional right away. Any vaginal bleeding after menopause isn't normal and should be evaluated immediately by a health care professional.

Heavy menstrual bleeding can be caused by:

  • Hormonal imbalances
  • Structural abnormalities in the uterus
  • Medical conditions

Many women with heavy menstrual bleeding can blame their condition on hormones. Your body may produce too much or not enough estrogen or progesterone—known as reproductive hormones—necessary to keep your menstrual cycle regular. For example, many women with heavy menstrual bleeding don't ovulate regularly. Ovulation, when one of the ovaries releases an egg, occurs around day 14 in a normal menstrual cycle. Changes in hormone levels help trigger ovulation.

Certain medical conditions can cause heavy menstrual bleeding. These include:

  • Thyroid problems
  • Blood clotting disorders such as Von Willebrand's disease, a mild-to-moderate bleeding disorder
  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), a bleeding disorder characterized by too few platelets in the blood
  • Liver or kidney disease
  • Leukemia
  • Medications, such as anticoagulant drugs such as Plavix (clopidogrel) or heparin and some synthetic hormones.

Other gynecologic conditions that may be responsible for heavy bleeding include:

  • Complications from an IUD
  • Fibroids
  • Miscarriage
  • Ectopic pregnancy, which occurs when a fertilized egg begins to grow outside your uterus, typically in your fallopian tubes

Other causes of excessive bleeding include:

  • Infections
  • Precancerous conditions of the uterine lining cells

Herbs which is useful :

Ashoka (Saraca indica ):

The bark of the tree is effective for excessive blood loss during menstruation due to the presence of uterine fibroids, leucorrhoea and other causes. A very useful herb to treat menstrual disorders associated with excess bleeding (rakta pradara), pain and congestion. Use when there are uterine spasms, abdominal pain and dysmenorrhoea. Its affinity for the uterine muscles and endometrium indicates its use as a uterine tonic to help with prolapse, miscarriage and irregular menstrual cycles. Also of benefit for clearing congestion from the mamsa and medas dhatus when there are fibroids, cysts, endometriosis and leucorrhoea from excess ama and kapha in the artava srotas. 

It also encourages the flow of urine and can help to alleviate painful urination. Ashoka has specific analgesic properties and can be used to soothe the nerves where they are aggravated by vata. 

Buy Ashoka Powder - 1 Kg.

Nagarmotha (Cyperus rotundus) :

This perennial herb is an astrigent. The grass herb is used for menstrual pain and disorders,  These substances have the property of shrink the body tissues subjected to inflammation. In this way, they fasten the process of healing also.
Buy Musta (Nagarmootha) Powder - 1 Kg.

Kamal Phool (lotus Flower): 

It is particularly useful in Rakta Pitta - bleeding disorders. Decoction of leaves and sandalwood or root-powder or seed-powder is useful for abnormal / irregular bleeding and PMS.

Many traditional ancient medical texts also report its use for skin conditions, notably ringworm, leprosy, sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis as well as for lowering fevers, fighting fungal infections and supporting a weak heart. The milky latex found in the stems, leaves and flowers is used to fight bacterial infections. 
Buy Kamal (Lotus) powder - 1 Kg.

Nagkeshar (Mesua ferrea) :

In a study of, the plant to assess its putative sex-steroidal activity, no oestrogenic or progestational activity was found. Its use in menorrhagia may he due to its action on capillaries. Oil is used to treat skin diseases and its local application is also recommended in rheumatism. The plant has been widely used in India.

Buy Nagkeshar powder - 1 Kg.

Diet :

Diet is very important. Aim for a healthy diet with plenty of fruit and vegetables. Cut down on salt to prevent bloating and sugar which may cause your blood glucose levels to swing, affecting your energy and appetite. It may help to cut back on fat which can encourage breast swelling, and caffeine and alcohol, as both can cause mood swings

  • Eat regular, healthy meals including plenty of vegetables, fruit, mixed grains and cereals

  • Eat small meals to maintain stable energy levels, this will also significantly reduce food cravings

  • Drink less caffeine – particularly if you are suffering breast tenderness. Try drinking water instead! (6-8 glasses a day)

  • Cut down on alcoholic beverages

  • Cut down on salt and salty foods to help reduce fluid retention 

  • Get enough rest, sleep and exercise

  • Don’t smoke

  • Wear a well fitting cotton bra if you suffer tense, painful breasts.

Ayurvedic Supplements :


Sundari Sakhi

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Stress Guard capsule  
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Anti-stress Massage Oil  
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Yoga which is helpful in Menstrual Disorder : 

Cobra (Bhujanga Asana)
The Shoulder Stand (Sarvang Asana)